Pain medications, especially opioids, have understandably undergone intense scrutiny due to recent public concern over prescription drug abuse, as well as the known side effects of opioids limiting enhanced recovery programs | Anesthesiology News
The problem with eliminating opioid use is that major surgery comes with major pain, and opioids are effective at treating major pain. Furthermore, when opioids are finally introduced after attempting to avoid their use, it is usually done “emergently”—only after the patient is in extreme, inconsolable pain that disrupts recovery. This will likely lead to giving patients larger doses and increasing the risk for adverse events that we are all trying to avoid.
Note that severe acute pain is a risk factor for the development of chronic pain, sleep disturbances, changes in mood and behavior (especially in children), poor wound healing and delayed recovery. This avoidance of opioids in the face of intense pain due to their potential short- and long-term negative effects has created, what I call, the “perioperative pain paradox.”
Full reference: Answine, J.F. (2017) Confronting the Perioperative Pain Paradox. Anesthesiology News. Published online: 15 June 2017